While many emerging regions have invested heavily in science and technology, Africa is falling behind in the race for scientific development, with the lowest enrolment rate for higher education in the world. To explore this problem and find solutions, 50 policymakers, scientists, journalists, publishers and representatives from nonprofit organizations gathered in the UK House of Parliament October 21 for an intensive debate on Africa, science and academic publishing.
The roundtable was organised by the Planet Earth Institute (PEI), a young nonprofit supporting the development of Africa’s scientific independence. They asked the audience three key questions on the threats and opportunities of open access, the standards and qualities of African journals and research capacity building. The informal “You Decide” poll yielded these results:
Here is a selection of perspectives and points raised both inside the room and on Twitter (#scienceAfrica):
Lord Paul Boateng, a trustee of PEI who chaired the panel as a leading figure on Africa and its development, called for the need to develop a comprehensive mentoring program between African diaspora scientists and research scientists in Africa
As with the work of all individual scientists, African research should be assessed using a broad range of metrics as recommended by the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment: The Journal Impact Factor should be just one of many presented in the larger context of metrics available (e.g., 5-year impact factor, Eigenfactor, SCImago, h-index, editorial and publication times, etc.) to provide a richer view of journal performance.)
Dr. Alicia Wise, Director of Universal Access at Elsevier, noted that recent Scopus research looking at African research output from 1996 to 2012 demonstrated that the number of research papers published in scientific journals with at least one African author more than quadrupled (from about 12,500 to over 52,000). During the same time the share of the world’s articles with African authors almost doubled from 1.2% to around 2.3%.
This positive trend provides only partial insight into the work being done by African scientists. Much critical research remains unpublished as “gray literature,” largely inaccessible beyond the walls of an institution. Much African research is also published in local, regional and national journals that are not yet indexed as part of Scopus or Thomson’s Web of Science. One of the burning questions: How can we raise the standards of these African journals to ensure a broader and more collaborative and inclusive global research environment?
African research may also suffer from a gap in adequate applied research metrics as African researchers often focus their work on tackling critical local issues such as cassava blight rather than blue sky research.